Tech Notes

Frost-resistant concrete weathers four decades in Russia

Frost-resistant concrete used to develop the 400-kW Kislaya Guba tidal project in Russia has operated without damage for more than 40 years. Construction of this plant was completed in 1968.

This concrete has a frost resistance grade of 1000, compared with a grade of 500 for concrete used in normal developments in Russia in the 1960s. In fact, originally the plant was developed using F500 concrete; in the first winter season, this concrete began to degrade, says Igor Usachev, director of the Science-Technical Center of Tidal Energy at the Scientific Research Institute of Energy Structures in Moscow.

Usachev and F.M. Ivanov, head of the corrosion of concrete laboratory at the Scientific Research Institute of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete, developed the F1000 concrete used at Kislaya Guba. Testing of this concrete after 40 years of operation revealed that the strength of the frost-resistant concrete exceeded the strength of the original concrete by more than 60 percent. At Kislaya Guba, the concrete has withstood more than 1,800 freeze-thaw cycles. In addition, the watertightness of the concrete was such that the insides of the 15-centimeter-thick walls have been dry for the past 40 years at a head of 12 meters. Tests also indicated there is no damage from corrosion or freezing.

Since it was used at Kislaya Guba, the frost-resistant concrete also has been used at the 156-MW Teriberskaya plant, and developers plan to use it at the 12-MW Severnaya and 8,000-MW Mezenskaya tidal plants.

Book discusses resettlement work in Sri Lanka

A book is available on how internal displacement and efforts to engineer resettlement are conceived and implemented by policy-makers and practitioners in Sri Lanka. The book is titled Relocation Failures in Sri Lanka: A Short History of Internal Displacement and Resettlement.

Author Dr. Robert Muggah is research director of Small Arms Survey, an independent research project at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, Switzerland. Before that, he was a global security and cooperation professional fellow at the Refugee Studies Centre at the University of Oxford.

The 322-page book covers population displacement and resettlement associated with infrastructure development, conflict, and natural disasters.

The six chapters in the book cover, among other topics, a unified approach to displacement and resettlement, which reviews literature on displacement and resettlement, regimes for internally displaced and resettled populations, which discusses various displacement and resettlement regimes, and a short history of settlement and resettlement in Sri Lanka.

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This two-sided wall map shows all power stations in Nepal, as well as water resources and geographical and district demarcations

Dr. Muggah wrote that the primary objective of this book is “to generate a comparative assessment of international regimes designed to protect and promote durable solutions for internally displaced people, including their influence on shaping resettlement outcomes in a single country.” He chose Sri Lanka as the country in which to perform his analysis because it has experienced all three forms of internal displacement and resettlement.

– To purchase the book for 19.99 euros (US$25), visit the website: and search for Sri Lanka.

Wall map shows all power stations in Nepal

The Power Map of Nepal is a wall map that includes all of Nepal’s power stations, water resources, and geographical and district demarcations.

The two-sided map features hydro, diesel, and thermal stations, as well as transmission lines and substations. It indicates whether a facility is existing, under construction, or proposed. The map provides details on planned hydro facilities for which licenses have been issued; hydro plants proposed or under construction; and existing facilities. These details include name, location, and MW capacity. In total, the map provides details on hydro facilities with a total capacity of more than 27,000 MW.

Hydro Solutions produced this map to provide a comprehensive atlas of water resources, geographical and district demarcations, and power stations in Nepal. Hydro Solutions provides advisory, planning, and development solutions in the hydroelectric industry.

– The map may be purchased for 500 rupees (US$11) from Hydro Solutions, (977) 1-4672598; E-mail:

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